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GD&T FUNDAMENTALS (16 hours, in person or online)

This course is ideal for design, manufacturing, quality assurance, inspection, procurement, and management personnel who need a detailed understanding of drawings involving geometric tolerancing.

  • The course uses a visual and context-based approach to applying GD&T per the ASME Y14.5-2018 standard
  • Core GD&T concepts of features, tolerance zones, and alignments are shown in context using actual part examples
  • Supporting theory, terminology and symbology from Y14.5 are then presented as reinforcement
  • Learn a step-by-step procedure for unpacking the information in GD&T specifications
  • Take advantage of modern 3D model-based approaches to GD&T as well as traditional 2D drafting-based methods

GD&T Fundamentals – Course Syllabus

  • Purpose of GD&T
  • Dimensioning and Tolerancing Standards
  • Fundamental Concept of Geometric Tolerancing
  • Tolerance Zones, Controlled Entities, and Alignments
  • Profile Tolerances
  • Basic Dimensions and Model-Based Definition
  • Grouping and Patterns
  • Size Tolerances and Actual Mating Envelopes
  • Differences between GD&T and Plus/Minus Tolerances
  • Actual Values and Measurement Data Reporting
  • Datums and Datum Reference Frames
  • Degree of Freedom Constraint and Precedence
  • Position Tolerances
  • Material Conditions and Modifiers
  • Bonus Tolerance Calculations
  • Virtual Condition and Functional Gauging
  • Orientation, Form, and Runout Tolerances
  • Simultaneous and Separate Requirements
  • Datum Targets
  • Comparison of Geometric Characteristics

Course Highlights and Learning Outcomes

After successful completion of the course, students will be able to do the following:

  • Read GD&T drawings per the ASME Y14.5-2018 standard
  • Apply a step-by-step procedure to unpack the information coded into feature control frames
  • Understand tolerance requirements in the context of actual part geometry
  • Describe tolerance zones for various geometric tolerance types
  • Understand the role of alignments and constraints
  • Understand the role of the CAD model and basic dimensions in GD&T
  • Understand the differences between geometric tolerancing and plus/minus tolerancing
  • Describe inspection options including templates, hard gages, dial indicators, and CMM’s
  • Understand the required and supplemental information in GD&T inspection reports
  • Go on to advanced GD&T courses in design, quality and inspection, and tolerance stackup

ADVANCED GD&T FOR DESIGN (16 hours, in person or online)

The course will cover how to select and specify geometric tolerances for part features based on their fit and function requirements. The students will learn how to do the following:

  • Apply a step-by-step procedure for breaking down part surfaces into features, interfaces, and alignments
  • Classify part features into logical groups based on mating part relationships
  • Choose features for a main alignment and general tolerance
  • Define auxiliary alignments for individual mating part interfaces
  • Control interface features in terms of quality of fit and placement of mating part
  • Specify GD&T to control functional characteristics such as flushness, gap, interference, and centering
  • Choose material condition modifiers based on feature function (clearance, material conservation)
  • Specify multi-level GD&T controls to refine particular geometric characteristics
  • Perform Fixed and Floating Fastener calculations
  • Understand partially constrained alignments and simultaneous requirements
  • Consider options for simplifying GD&T requirements without compromising part function
  • Manage loose-fitting interface features and datum feature shift
  • Specify Datum Targets to improve repeatability or capture fixture-based alignments
  • Apply restraint notes for non-rigid parts
  • Identify options and compromises (balancing complexity versus amount of tolerance)

Format will include lecture sessions, exercises, questions and discussion. The course focuses on specifying the information on GD&T drawings and is most applicable for those who are involved in design. Client applications are encouraged, it is recommended that 2-3 examples using client parts be coordinated with the instructor in advance of the training.


This course reviews the ASME standard definitions for measured values and how to calculate them, as well as providing industry best practices on the content of GD&T inspection reports.  The students will learn how to successfully:

  • Examine a GD&T drawing and identify which numerical values would require verification on an inspection report according to ASME standards, and which would not
  • Describe the actual value of a given geometric tolerance in terms of a zone, and recognize it on a depiction of an actual part feature
  • Identify the correct adjustments available and calculate measured values for form, orientation, location, and runout tolerances from indicator measurement data
  • Compare the options available when reporting actual values for multi-feature GD&T applications, such as Position tolerances on hole patterns
  • Describe potential root causes for discrepancies in GD&T inspection results, relating to metrology software programming and calculation algorithms
  • Complete a GD&T inspection report which includes Method A conformance, Method B measured values, and Method C supplemental data as per the ASME Y14.45-2021 Standard

This course is great for quality engineers, design engineers, inspectors, supplier quality engineers, manufacturing engineers – anyone involved in creating or reviewing GD&T inspection reports.  Format includes lecture sessions, exercises, questions and discussion. The course is intended for students who already have a good working knowledge of GD&T fundamentals.

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